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Sateen
A weave construction for mercerized cotton fabrics, which produces a smooth, lustrous surface.

Satin Stitch
A closely spaced stitch that forms a line of closely spaced loops at the edge. It is used in embroidery for purely decorative purposes.

Satinwood
An Indian wood that has a rich, golden-yellow color and can be carved intricately and beautifully. It was used for decorative furniture during the late 18th century in England.

Scallop
A scallop is a carved shell ornament on furniture items or walls. Used alone, the scallop is typical Spanish style from the 18th century. When used at the center of various ornaments, this is 18th century Rococo style. Scallops are often carved into the knees of cabriole legs.

Scalloped Edge
A border that contains continuous curves finished with bourdon stitching.

Scandinavian Furniture
Simple, clean and lightweight furniture characterizes the Scandinavian style. Bent plywood was commonly used in the combination of quality craft and mass production.

Seeded Glass
This type of glass was very popular during the Colonial times. It has pinhead-sized bubbles inside of the glass to create a softer light for lanterns, lamps, etc.

Semainier
A French Louis XVI style chest of drawers that is tall and narrow. Each piece has seven drawers, one for each day of the week.

Serpentine Edges
A mid-18th century Queen Anne era term that describes flowing curved edges on chests, commodes, cabinets, and sideboards.

Settee
A furniture piece that is a bit smaller than a sofa with a low back and arms and is about twice the size of a wing chair. Most of the time, settees are upholstered. Settees came into use in the 18th century.

Settle
A settee that is constructed of all wood and no upholstery. Settles have higher arms and backs, a wooden hood, and are mostly made of oak, pine, and walnut. The seat to settles often opens to a box for storage underneath. Settles are seen in American and English pieces from the 17th and 18th centuries.

Shalwar
Loose, tapered trousers worn in Asia, often paired with the kameez.

Sheathing
An American term used to describe interior vertically-paneled wood walls extending from floor to ceiling. This technique was used from the late 17th century to the late 19th century.

Sheesham Wood
Indian rosewood that is heavy and hard with a rich chestnut color. It often runs vertical so that it resembles a floor-to-ceiling wall.

Shellac
A finish that is natural resin and can be brushed or padded onto a surface. The finish has a high-gloss yet brittle look to it, and is often called a French polish. Shellac finishes can be easily damaged by warm temperatures and moisture.

Shepherd's Crook Arm
A term used to describe a Queen Anne style chair with arms that form a double scroll. These arms curve up and out then back down and inwards to create a sophisticated look. Also called a scroll-over arm.

Sheraton Style
This English style that lasted from 1790-1830 is often called the French version of the Hepplewhite style. Chair legs were still tapered but were round instead of square, and fluting and reeding was used. More curves are seen in the Sheraton style than in Hepplewhite, but pieces were still fairly straight-lined. Chairs had square backs with varying ornamentation in the center. This style was the preferred furniture of George and Martha Washington.

Shield Back
A term that describes the back of a Hepplewhite chair shaped like a shield and with openwork design in the middle, open area.

Silk
A fine continuous protein fiber produced by various insect larvae usually for cocoons: a lustrous tough elastic fiber produced by silkworms and used for textiles; thread, yarn, or fabric made from silk filaments.

Skirt
The piece that connects a table's legs to the top. This area is often decorated with carvings or contains a drawer. Also called an apron.

Snake-feet legs
This is a late 18th century style English inspired. It describes the classical leg style still used in modern furniture.

Spade Foot
This late 18th century Chippendale and Hepplewhite term describes a tapered square foot to a furniture piece. This type of foot is slightly wider than the leg of the piece. Also called a plinth and a therm foot.

Spanish Foot
A late 17th century William and Mary chair or table foot that is scrolled, rounded, and carved so that it almost resembles an animal paw.

Spindle
A piece of wood that has symmetrical designs carved from a lathe. Typically used as support beam in furniture, but generally refers to any part of a piece that fits this description.

Split Spindle
A Jacobean term describing balusters that have been split and placed on a surface. A split spindle forms half of a baluster.

Stamping
Steel punches (circles, stars, etc.) that were used by carvers in the 16th and 17th centuries for stamping patterns on oak furniture.

Stretcher Base
Horizontal rails that connect the bottom legs of tables or chairs or that form a support for cabinets. Not only do stretcher bases stabilize the piece; they also served as a foot rest during the 18th century when they were first made.

Supima Cotton
Only the finest, most luxurious cotton grown in the world can call itself "Supima" cotton…and the Supima organization was put in place to ensure that the term maintains its exclusive status. American cotton producers from Arizona, New Mexico and Texas founded Supima—short for "superior pima"—in 1954, as a way to differentiate American pima cotton from conventional upland cotton. Pima cotton is an American version ofEgyptian cotton.

Suzani
Antique oriental fabrics that are hand-embroidered from Southeast Asia and that are used as wall hangings, bedding, pillows, tablecloths, etc.

Swedish Style
Clean and light décor elements with refined elegance and casual appearance. The Swedish style reflects natural light and the furniture is straight-lined and gentle-curved.

Swing Leg
A type of table leg that is attached to the drop part of a drop leaf table. These type legs and tables were very common during the Queen Anne style of the early 18th century.